Albert Einstein Was Correct About Universe’s Main Mystery More Than 100 Years Ago
It has been more than 100 years since physicist Karl Schwarzschild theorized about the existence of black holes, and they are still incredibly mysterious cosmic elements. Scientists have only recently managed to take the first picture of one in a historic discovery.
Another finding that proved Albert Einstein’s theories was made a couple of years ago. But even with so much knowledge at our disposal, some people still do not believe that man landed on the Moon. An expert may have just proven them wrong. Do you know how? Let’s find out more.
Hearing about #BlackHoles this morning? Here's a refresher on what a black hole IS. 🤔 It's a place where a large amount of mass has been squeezed into a tiny space. The gravity is so strong that not even light can escape from a black hole. Learn more: https://t.co/lkbaYWv5cz pic.twitter.com/RVuuxpaJPG— NASA (@NASA) April 10, 2019
WHAT ARE BLACK HOLES?
These celestial bodies are incredibly strong pulls of gravity that distort the fabric of reality that surrounds them. The gravitational force is so powerful that light cannot escape its hold. If anything falls in a black hole’s event horizon, aka point of no return, it’s ensnared forever.
It’s also encased in a space that is so different from anything we know or recognize. Black holes are usually formed from dying stars, which have run out of source energy and collapse on themselves. They press their weight on themselves until a small point.
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In a historic feat by the Event Horizon Telescope and National Science Foundation (@NSFgov), an image of a black hole and its shadow has been captured for the first time. Several of our missions were part of a large effort to observe the same black hole using different wavelengths of light and collect data to understand the black hole's environment. Here's a look at @NASAChandraXRay Observatory's close-up of the core of the M87 galaxy and the black hole at the center of it. Credits: NASA/CXC/Villanova University/J. Neilsen #blackhole #EHTblackhole #galaxy #first
These mysterious cosmic elements cannot be measured through any normal means, and until very recently, they were still considered theoretical. In 2015, several researchers discovered what happened after two black holes mixed together, and proved that Albert Einstein was right all along.
He believed that black holes trapped in one orbit, also known as binary black holes, would eventually merge. The impact of such an event creates gravitational waves, which are called “fluctuations in the fabric of spacetime” by the European Space Agency.
Black holes and gravitational waves were actually solved by the theory of general relativity, which Einstein revealed in 1915. The German-born physicist’s discovery is still considered the best way to analyze the workings of the cosmos. According to ESA,
“Karl Schwarzschild derived the equations for black holes in 1916, but they remained rather a theoretical curiosity for several decades, until X-ray observations performed with space telescopes could finally probe the highly energetic emission from matter in the vicinity of these extreme objects.”
“The first ever image of a black hole’s dark silhouette, cast against the light from matter in its immediate surrounding, was only captured recently by the Event Horizon Telescope and published just last month.”
What does today's black hole image news mean? Our @ChandraXRay Observatory team puts it into perspective and shares just what a difficult feat it was for @NSF and @EHTelescope to obtain the new black hole image. Read more about #EHTBlackHole: https://t.co/s9xoxt8l3S pic.twitter.com/TQD8HSdbGG— NASA (@NASA) April 10, 2019
When it comes to Einstein’s theory, they added,
“As for gravitational waves, it was Einstein himself who predicted their existence from his theory, also in 1916, but it would take another century to finally observe these fluctuations.”
ONE OF HIS THEORIES WAS PROVEN MANY YEARS AGO
It might have taken a long time to prove black holes and gravitational waves, but another of Einstein’s theories was confirmed a couple of years after he came up with general relativity. In 1919, scientists observed a total eclipse of the Sun.
They found evidence of the gravitational bending of light, also referred to as gravitational bending. The theory stated that light curves when it goes near a large cosmic body like a planet or a black hole. In simple terms, it means that the light from a star will arrive on Earth at an angle instead of directly. According to ESA,
“In the framework of general relativity, any object with mass bends the fabric of spacetime, deflecting the path of anything that passes nearby – including light. An artistic view of this distortion, also known as gravitational lensing, is depicted in this representation of two merging black holes.”
They also stated,
“One hundred years ago, astronomers set out to test general relativity, observing whether and by how much the mass of the Sun deflects the light of distant stars. This experiment could only be performed by obscuring the Sun’s light to reveal the stars around it, something that is possible during a total solar eclipse.”
Scientists have only recently shown the first picture of a black hole, but they have not seen a combination of two yet. However, ESA’s LISA project hopes to capture gravitational waves from the space around it.
There is also another study in the European Space Agency called the X-ray observatory Athena, which is set to start at the same time as LISA in the 2030s. According to the organization,
“We don’t know what happens during such a cosmic clash so this experiment, much like the eclipse of 1919 that first proved Einstein’s theory, is set to shake our understanding of gravity and the universe.”
Hubble’s measurements of today’s expansion rate of the Universe do not match the expected rate. Using new data from the NASA/ESA @HUBBLE_space Telescope, astronomers have significantly lowered the possibility that this discrepancy is a fluke.— ESA (@esa) April 25, 2019
Read more: https://t.co/h3UrNZH3fj pic.twitter.com/Cspc5h1eNH
WAS THE MOON-LANDING REAL?
NASA reached the Moon on July 20, 1969, and astronaut Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on its surface. However, the Apollo 11 historic moment is considered a hoax by many people. This year, the Moon landing will mark its 50th anniversary; so, let’s discover the truth.
Along with Armstrong, astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins also landed on the Moon, sacrificing a lot for the advancement of technology. The mission was essentially a “test run” to see if they could actually get there. Recently, the ‘Coast To Coast’ radio show invited aerospace engineer Sir Charles Shults III to talk about the Moon-landing conspiracy theories.
Right now in @NASAHistory, Neil Armstrong opens the #Apollo11 lunar module hatch and squeezes through the opening. Tune in to NASA Television NOW to watch archived footage of the first Moonwalks, played in real-time as if it were July 20, 1969: https://t.co/ZuxLDtRxxM pic.twitter.com/MpXcEQLoSq— NASA (@NASA) July 21, 2018
One of the main arguments of Moon-landing naysayers is that they believe it was filmed in a studio. Shults III said that while there are those that might try to fake some discoveries, this one would be too hard to make.
“There are many details that forgers could not possibly have got right in a recreation. Think about prep to watch a movie these days and pick apart every frame for inconsistencies.”
Immerse yourself in this nail-biting vintage footage, as we celebrate the #Apollo50th anniversary of Apollo 11. Go inside a suspense filled minute by minute breakdown at master control, for epic moments on and off planet. Dive in here: https://t.co/vtjzTZl4MT pic.twitter.com/hdc3dvAh7I— NASA (@NASA) February 25, 2019
“And you can see it would be very difficult to fake something in a studio that would match what was going on. And on top of that a huge bulk 8,400 photographs has just been released by NASA, that would make it extremely impossible if not impossible to fake.”
Saw @TheRealBuzz Aldrin at the State of the Union? He was the lunar module pilot for the first crewed lunar landing mission, Apollo 11. Aldrin walked on the Moon on July 20, 1969. As we celebrate the #Apollo50 anniversary, learn more about Aldrin: https://t.co/ybgNRNuEcq #SOTU pic.twitter.com/8g4tL5JXGr— NASA (@NASA) February 6, 2019
WHAT'S WRONG WITH THE FLAG?
Another argument about the Moon landing is that the flag seems to be moving as if there was wind, which is impossible on the Moon. However, Shults explained that NASA scientists knew about this and decided to add wires to make it seem like it was.
“The scientists put a springy wire at the edge of the flag to hold the fabric out. And because there is no air, that is why the flag continued to move after the flag was planted. The spring had nothing to slow its movements down, as it is was in a vacuum.”
“And if you look at the footage where the lunar landed lifts off at the end of the mission, you will see the rocket exhaust definitely move the flag, that was standing still only moments before.”
Join us tonight at 8pm ET as @ArsTechnica takes us back in time to a moonshot moment that changed history. Watch NASA TV for a series that recounts the trials and tribulations of the space program that brought our first humans out of this world: https://t.co/P9MulZSSH3 #Apollo50 pic.twitter.com/0LblMxCU8g— NASA (@NASA) February 4, 2019
THE VAN ALLEN BELT ISSUE
Another point that conspiracy theories adhere to is that for astronauts to get to the Moon, they had to go through the Van Allen radiation belt twice – on the way there and back. The expert said that they only use that argument because they do not understand physics.
“People do not have a lot of information about physics, and they don’t know what the intensity of radiation is. The astronauts take around four hours to pass through the Van Allen belts. And the total amount of radiation they would pick up is approximate to receiving a chest X-ray.”
He also said,
“So it is not a life-threatening amount of radiation, as it is not a place they have to spend a lot of time. James Lovell went to orbit the Moon in 1968 and went back for another pass on Apollo 13. So he went through the Van Allen belt four times.”
On this day 50 years ago, Apollo 8 was en route to the Moon on the first human flight to lunar orbit. Three @NASA_Astronauts became the first people to see the Moon's far side and took this famous Earthrise photo. Learn more about #Apollo50 anniversary: https://t.co/othdLsc9K2 pic.twitter.com/RYotJQe0rW— NASA (@NASA) December 22, 2018
NASA discovered a solution; so Shults continued,
“It was soon found to make the capsules of very light-weight materials that allowed the radiations to pass right through the astronauts, without generating secondary and tertiary radiation.”
Finally, the last point conspiracy theorists make is that the Moon’s intense temperatures would damage astronauts and their gear. However, the aerospace engineer explained that they can take many measures to ensure that this doesn't happen.
“The surface of the Moon can exceed 200F during the lunar day, which is extremely hot. There is no cloud coverage, so astronauts are being hit with raw sunlight.”
“We are on the brink of launching American astronauts on American rockets from American soil,” said @JimBridenstine during today’s #LaunchAmerica announcement. Check out the highlights in this @Twitter moment: https://t.co/2Dki4LTw1K pic.twitter.com/5cOTzOrqmT— NASA (@NASA) August 3, 2018
However, their spacesuits had air conditioning layer and insulation.
“The equipment was also well insulated, and during the early missions, you will notice the shielding on the cameras is something very thick, and they didn’t allow it to be exposed to direct sunlight for much of the time. And another defense against that intensity of heat was to keep the equipment under something as simple as a shade or an awning.”
Sometimes, conspiracy theories sound so reasonable that many believe them. But, we are inclined to believe the experts. After all, Albert Einstein was right all along. Let us know what you think of the Moon-landing. If you liked this article, share it with your friends that love everything about space. See you next time!